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Taille: Ici, ce sont des descriptions de tableaux représentant des batailles. This linguistic practice continued until the French Revolution — and later —, and casted a general disrepute on the idea of innovation. Le serveur français commence a avoir de plus en plus de monde. Innovation is putting invention to work. Innovation recombines ideas or things in a new way Barnett, A hundred years later, King Charles prohibited innovation again England and Wales. Les quêtes sont bien compréhensibles.

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Two rehabilitations of the concept serve the purpose. Innovation is neutral. There are good and bad innovations.


Yet, innovation may be a good thing, namely useful. Whatever is now establishment was once innovation… The idea of novelty was the only idea originally attached to the term innovation, and the only one which is directly expressed in the etymology. Innovation is a means to political, social and material progress. Such is a repeated statement after the French Revolution.

Gobineau, First, the neutral use of the concept coexisted with the pejorative before the nineteenth century e. Saint Simon, One had to wait until the twentieth century for a complete reversal in the representation of innovation. This occurred after World War II. Those who contested innovation in the past — governments — start de-contesting innovation and produce reflexive thoughts on innovation as a policy tool.

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Technological innovation serves economic growth. Innovation becomes a basic concept of economic policy. In all these efforts, the governments are supported by the academics as consultants, who imagine models of innovation by the dozens, as a way to frame and guide policies. Model itself becomes an integral concept in the literature on innovation.

Innovation is cast in terms of a vocabulary of initiative, 9 together with entrepreneurship and creativity. What was called change e.

Everyone is now considered an innovator, from the individual to organizations to nations. The innovator is not a heretic. He is simply different from the masses or from his fellows. The innovator is ingenious and creative. In the previous centuries, the semantic field of innovation was composed of four concepts. One is change, which is accepted depending on the context, but innovation is not. Among the intentional changes, reformation and renovation is accepted. Reformation is gradual. It builds on what already exist.

Reformation acts here as a counter-concept to innovation. A revolution is radical, violent and total. By the nineteenth century, innovation had encapsulated this later connotation. Innovation is change to the established order, a change that is intentional, a change that brings radical change or revolutionarily transforms society.

To be sure, some terms were in place in the previous centuries, such as change. Today, innovation is intentional change in the sense of planned change. It necessitates strategy and investment. Innovation retains the idea of revolution too. There are major innovations, so it is said, and they are the most studied innovations because of their revolutionary impacts on society, so it is believed. In spite of these continuities, a new vocabulary has emerged. Innovation is originality, in three senses.

First, innovation is difference, departure. Innovation recombines ideas or things in a new way Barnett, Third, innovation refers to origin, namely being first to originate initiate or use a new practice.

For example, to economists, innovators are the firsts to commercialize a new invention. This connotation owes its existence to the market ideology. It gave rise to a whole vocabulary on innovators versus laggards Rogers, In contrast, to the moderns, the world is too stable and needs revolutionary innovations.

There are also counter-concepts. One is imitation.


Innovation is contrasted to imitation. Imitation is not original or creative, so it is said. Such a view is contested. Innovation is contrasted to invention, which is mental. Innovation is putting invention to work. Yet, invention plays the role of a basic concept to innovation at the same time.

While science and innovation were two separated things to natural philosophers of past centuries, they are now part of the same process.

Invention is the first step in the process of innovation. Innovation starts with basic research, then applied research then development. Innovation is the application of ideas, inventions and science.


These concepts are mainly used by sociologists. Used concurrently with introduction or application, this concept applies to industrial innovation. It is not just the discovery of new knowledge, not just the development of a new product, manufacturing technique, or service, nor the creation of a new market. Until then, innovation as a concept was either a substantive something new or a verb introducing, adopting something new , an end or a means.


Innovation is not a thing or a single act but a series of events or activities called stages with a purpose. This is not unlike innovation as substantive or verb.

For example, sociologists use innovation as a substantive but focus on the verb diffusion. Similarly, economists stress the verb form commercialization. Everywhere, this process is framed in terms of a sequence with stages called models.


Technological innovation sprang from a tension between science for its own sake and society, or aspiration to action. Eligibility 1. Tanzanian, Malawian, Burundian or Somalian citizen aged years 2.

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